Kyphoplasty Treatment in India
Kyphoplasty is a newer treatment for patients immobilized by the painful vertebral body compression fractures associated with osteoporosis. Like vertebroplasty, kyphoplasty is a minimally invasive procedure that can alleviate up to 90% of the pain caused by compression fractures. In addition to relieving pain, kyphoplasty can also stabilize the fracture, restore height, and reduce deformity.
Osteoporosis and Vertebral Fracture
Osteoporosis is a condition where the bone density decreases with advancing age, due to deficiency of calcium and vitamin D. Osteoporosis makes the bones of the body weak and susceptible to fractures, especially of the spine. Approximately 85% fractures in old age are caused by osteoporosis and remaining 15% are caused by bone weakness caused by other conditions such as spread of cancer to the bones.
Osteoporosis is complicated by vertebral fracture that occurs spontaneously or is caused by minor trauma. These vertebral fractures are often highly painful and are treated with immobilization, analgesic drugs, and specific treatment of osteoporosis. But immobilization increases demineralization. Therefore in spite of long-term medical treatment, some patients have severe, persistent, incapacitating pain. Later consequences of vertebral fracture include reduced height, kyphosis (hunch back), and chronic back pain.
Kyphoplasty is indicated for painful osteoporotic or neoplastic vertebral compression fractures refractory to medical therapy.
How is Kyphoplasty Performed?
Kyphoplasty is performed under local or general anesthesia. Using image guidance x-rays, two small incisions are made and a probe is placed into the vertebral space where the fracture is located. The bone is drilled and a balloon, called a bone tamp, is inserted on each side. These balloons are then inflated with contrast medium until they expand to the desired height and removed. The balloon does not remain in the patient. It simply creates a cavity for the cement and also helps expand the compressed bone.
The spaces created by the balloons are then filled with PMMA, the same orthopaedic cement used in vertebroplasty, binding the fracture. The cement hardens quickly, providing strength and stability to the vertebra, restoring height, and relieving pain.
Benefits of Vertebroplasty and Kyphoplasty
Limitations in the traditional treatments of vertebral compression fractures have led to the refinement of such procedures as vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty. These procedures provide new options for compression fractures and are designed to relieve pain, reduce and stabilize fractures, reduce spinal deformity, and stop the "downward spiral" of untreated osteoporosis.
Additional benefits of kyphoplasty include:
- Short surgical time
- Only general or local anesthesia required
- Average hospital stay is one day (or less)
- Patients can quickly return to the normal activities of daily living
- No bracing required
Both vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty utilize a cement-like material that is injected directly into the fractured bone. This stabilizes the fracture and provides immediate pain relief, in many cases. Kyphoplasty has the additional advantage of being able to restore height to the spine, thus reducing deformity. After either procedure, most patients quickly return to their normal daily activities.